L.V. Yermolova, M.G. Prodanchuk, P.G. Zhminko, I.V. Lepeshkin

For neonicotinoid insecticides as a acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiacloprid is characteristic high selective toxicity. The active substances highly toxic for insects and moderately toxic for mammals due to various sensitivity of postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the central nervous system, chemical structure of molecules of the active substances, weak penetration through hematoencephalic barrier. Primary target of neonicotinoid insecticides for mammals — liver. On the high dozes the imidacloprid and thiacloprid reveal thyreotoxic effect, thiacloprid induces enzimes of monooxigenaze system, acetamiprid and thiacloprid have gormonal mechanism of cancer development in rats. The delayed effects did not limit the use of these pesticides. In Ukraine acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans of imidacloprid based on no-observed-effect level (NOEL), of thiacloprid on no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in chronic experiment. ADI of acetamiprid is established taking into account the NOEL on develomental toxicity — 6,6 mg/kg. Acceptable daily intakes: imidacloprid — 0,06; acetamiprid — 0,01; thiacloprid — 0,006 mg/kg body weight. In rats the main path of degradation active substances — hydroxilation and formation of conjugates with glucuronic acid. Active substances fast metabolized in rats, ptimary way of elimination — through kidneys. On the basis of acute toxicity indices formulations containing acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, could be considering mainly as a substances of 3—4 class of hazard, in the correspondence with a Ukrainian Hygienic classification pesticides on a degree of hazard (ДСанПіН—98).


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